10.Leavening agents

Ingredient Knowledge Crucial to Fine Formulations
1.What is the function of honey as leavening agent?

Honey functions as a humectant and shelf life extension agent. It provides a characteristic flavor, contributes to browning and also contains antioxidants, vitamins and minerals. It also has both antimicrobial (e.g., antibiotic ointments) and prebiotic properties (e.g., its function in dairy products). Additionally, honey has been found to increase recuperation rates after workouts. Raw honey has a moderate GI (58), which is lower than most other sweeteners.

2.Which types of enzymes are useful in marinades?

Among several types of enzymes that are useful in marinades are papain, bromelain, ficin, Aspergillus oryzae protease and Bacillus subtilis protease. Papain is derived from the latex of unripe papaya. It has the longest history of use and the highest temperature of inactivation. Bromelain is derived from pineapple, has a slightly lower temperature of inactivation compared to papain, no odor, no added sulfites and is more effective on connective tissue. Ficin is derived from latex of the fig tree and has the lowest temperature of inactivation of the botanical proteases, but it has limited production and the highest cost.
Aspergillus oryzae protease is derived from a fungal source; its limited market use may be due to potential amylase side activity. It has a low temperature of inactivation and is a very mild tenderizer. Bacillus subtilis protease has only recently gained USDA approval. It is a mild tenderizer with low temperature of inactivation and is a possible alternate to ficin.