Emulsifiers application
1.Describe the role of emulsifier as foam stabilization in a cake.

To provide the correct finished texture in a cake, air must be mixed into the cake batter. Air cells in the batter are subsequently expanded by carbon dioxide gas from the leavening system to form the structure of the finished cake. Aeration must be efficient because over-mixing the batter can make the cake tough.
Emulsifiers increase the whipping rate of cake batters by reducing the surface tension of their aqueous phase. This allows mixer blades to more easily break the surface and incorporate air. Although the mechanism is less understood, emulsifiers also help to increase overall cake volume and to make the cell structure more even.

Emulsifiers in baked goods
2.What are the benefits that provided by dought conditioners?

Dough conditioners provide the following benefits:
  • Compensation for variations in raw materials.
  • Improved dough machinability by gluten complexing.
  • Greater tolerance to production abuse of dough by providing a drier, less sticky dough. This reduces tearing and facilitates processing.
  • Ease of formulating low-fat products; reduction in shortening or oil with no loss of volume, tenderness, or slicing ease.
  • Increased gas retention, resulting in lower yeast requirements, improved oven spring, shorter proof times, and increased volume.
  • Better texture of finished product - i.e., finer grain.
  • Stronger side walls, improved symmetry, and reduction of deformed products.
  • Improved hydration rate of the flour and other ingredients.
Emulsifiers that condition the dough by strengthening the gluten protein network for better gas retention, improved texture, and increased volume are sodium- and calcium stearoyl lactylate (SSL and CSL), ethoxylated mono- and diglycerides (EMG), polysorbates (PS), succinylated monoglycerides (SMG), and diacetyl tartaric acid esters of monoglycerides (DATEM).