Interactive crossword (Gums and stabilizers)
Here's an interactive crossword to test your knowledge on gums and stabilizers. Click the link below and then click [Open]. To start the crossword, click in any box to get the clue. Have fun!


Using a free software called Freemind, construct a mindmap showing the classification of gums/hydrocolloids based on their source and functional properties. Here's some video tutorials (You Tube) to get you started.

What do carrageenan and agar have in common?
  1. Think about the chemical structure of carrageenan and agar - what do they have in common?
  2. What are the differences between kappa, iota and lambda carrageenan? Why?

Download the articles on gelatin from the portal and discuss the following questions.
  1. In recent years a lot of efforts have been initiated to find new alternatives for gelatin? Why?
  2. Gelatin is always considered a special/unique ingredient that find many applications in food and non-food industry. Why?
  3. Do you think fish gelatin can be used to replace mammalian gelatin (porcine and bovine)?


Chewy confections include jellies, caramels and nougats, and taffies. Within these groups lie a wide variety of shapes, flavors, textures and sizes. In this article "Chewy Confections" you will learn about the various ingredients (especially sweeteners) that go into the formulation. To better understand the process, watch this You Tube video "How it's made - Gummy Candies". After reading the article and watching the video, answer the following questions:
  1. How do you describe the texture of jelly worm, caramels, and nougat?
  2. Apart from sucrose, corn syrup and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) are common sweeteners in chewy confections. Apart from providing sweetness, what are the functions of the syrups?
  3. Corn syrup with DE of 42 or 63 is commonly used in chewy caramel formulation. What is DE stand for? How the use of corn syrup with different DE (in this case 42 and 63) impact the physical and textural properties of chewy confections?
  4. Crystallization of sugar is undesirable in chewy, non-grained confections. How crystallization of sugar can be inhibited?
  5. What is sugar alcohols? Why they are widely used in sugar-free confections? Give examples of sugar alcohol (other than sorbitol).
  6. Gummy candies typically contain 175 to 250 bloom gelatin. What is the meaning of "bloom"?
  7. In gummy candies (such as gummy bear or jelly worm), gelatins Type A are favored over gelatins Type B. Why?
  8. When gelatin is used in the formulation, what are the precautions that need to be taken to achieve the gel strength required?
  9. What are the functions of starch molds normally used in the processing of jelly candies?
  10. Apart from gelatin, what other gums can be used to modify the texture of gummy jellies?
  11. What are the function of milk proteins in caramel?
  12. Explain how the color, flavor and smooth, non-sticky appearance of caramels are obtained?
  13. Can nougat be considered an emulsion as well as foam? Explain.