Ingredients that gel
1. Where are the most gelling hydrocolloids come from?

Agars, carrageenans and alginates are obtained from seaweeds; pectins are extracted from citrus peel and apple pulp; xanthan gum and gellan gum are produced from microorganisms by fermentation; locust bean (also known as carob bean) gum, which co-gels with xanthan gum, is the ground endosperm of carob beans. Gelatin, on the other hand, is a collagen-derived protein.

2. Different gelling hydrocolloids have their unique characteristics.texture. What are the ways they create characteristics texture?

Gelling hydrocolloids have distinctive properties that create characteristic textures. Agar-agar gels tend to be firm and brittle and, generally, develop turbidity due to the microfibrillar structure of the gel network. Carrageenan gels vary from firm to soft with varying degrees of elasticity, depending on type. Alginates form gels in the presence of calcium ions. These gels can be soft or firm, depending on alginate type and calcium content, and tend to be very elastic.
Gellan gels tend to be firm and brittle whereas xanthan forms soft elastic gels in the presence of locust bean gum. Gelatin produces completely stable soft gels of chewy texture and with melt-in-mouth properties that give favorable flavor-release qualities. Native, amylose-containing starches form firm, pasty gels with limited stability and shelflife, due to syneresis. Pectins form soft, short-textured gels in high-sugar jams and confectionery jellies. Agar-agar, kappa-carrageenan, calcium alginate and gellan gum gels can undergo shrinkage and exude water on storage (syneresis).