GUM & STABILIZERS

Qs 1: What is the function of hydrocolloids in bakery product?
Aws: In bakery products, hydrocolloids assist in retaining moisture, which extends the shelf
life. Besides, hydrocolloids add viscosity to the batter, which control the size of he air
cells, created by the reaction of the leaving acid and sodium bicarbonate,resulting in
better volumes and finer texture.

Qs 2 : What is the factor that influences the gel formation kinetics and final hardness?
Aws: The gel formation kinetics and final hardness depends mainly on the bloom value,
particle size distribution and mean particle size. Salt content, pH and ambient
temperature also influences the result.

EMULSIFIERS

Qs 1: Describes the change in the cake batter after incorporation of certain emulsifiers which
provides aeration/ foam stability.
Aws: Cake batter is a mobile foam, while baked cakes are rigid foams. Emulsifiers coat the
air cells in foams to provide foam stabilization. In addition, emulsifiers increase the
amount of air that can be whipped into the batter by decreasing the surface tension of
the aqueous phase, thereby increasing the whipping rate of batters.
Carbon dioxide gas, a leavened, does not spontaneously form bubbles in cake batters. By
adding emulsifiers, more uniform air cells are generated and these act as nucleation sites
for the dissolved gas. The result is a cake with improved grain, more even cell structure,
and increased volume.
Monoglycerides, lactic acid esters, propylene glycol esters, polyglycerol esters, and
polysorbates are emulsifiers that provide aeration and foam stabilization.


Qs 2: List out the classification of emulsifiers.
Aws : (1) HLB – Hydrophilic/lipophilic balances
(2) Ionic charge
(3) Crystal stability

FOOD FLAVOURS

Qs 1: What will affect the enhancing abilities of MSG?
Aws: . The enhancing abilities of MSG are affected somewhat by the food system’s pH,
making it most effective at a pH range of 5.5 to 8.0. High temperatures also may cause
some loss of effectiveness.

Qs 2: Define the concept of “Flavour enhancement”.
Aws: Flavour enhancement' is a somewhat ambiguous concept, it means one of two things,
increasing overall perception of flavour or improving the quality of the flavour.

SWEETENERS

Qs 1: What is the function of sucrose?
Aws: Sucrose, a disaccharide of the monosaccharide glucose and fructose, has historically
been the sweetener of choice. Not simply valued for its pleasant, sweet taste, sugar
contributes important functionalities, such as browning and fermentation regulation in
baked goods, bulk and rich texture in ice cream and jams, viscosity in beverages, and
flavour enhancement in sweet and savoury products.






Qs 2: Write a short description for mannitol.
Aws: Mannitol is widely found in nature in marine algae, in tree exudates and in mushrooms.
It is an isomer of sorbitol and is produced by the hydrogenation of glucose syrups.
Mannitol is non-hygroscopic, making it ideal for use as a dusting powder in chewing
gums. It also is used in soft candies for seeding purposes, that is, to initiate crystallization.
Like all other polyols, mannitol does not promote tooth decay and does not require
insulin for its metabolism.


SALT

Qs 1: How salt is function to control the microbial growth of food?
Aws: The two functions, preservation and fermentation control, both rely on the same fact.
When dissolved in water, salt slows or stops microbial growth and, at high enough
levels, it can kill many microorganisms. As a solute, salt affects water activity and
osmotic pressure. With enough salt, the water activity drops too low to support growth
or the osmotic pressure causes the cell wall to rupture. Because of its low molecular
weight, salt is an extremely effective agent for lowering water activity.
Salt acts as a control agent for fermented foods such as bread and cheese. In bread it
slows the gas production by the yeast, promoting a cell structure that creates an
acceptable texture. In cheese it helps regulate the amount of acid produced by the culture,
which affects the finished product flavour.


Qs 2: When salt used as a topping, salt size becomes an important consideration.
Explain.
Aws: When salt used as a topping, salt size becomes an important consideration because it
Influences a number of factors.
  • Flavour.
The larger the salt crystal, the longer it takes to dissolve in saliva. The salty sensation lingers. A large crystal also produces a different flavour impact than a smaller piece - sharper, with more bite. Large crystals give a textural impact or crunch when bitten, in addition to a strong salt release.
  • Appearance.
A large salt crystal is easy to see, reinforcing the salty flavour with a visual cue. When salt is applied to pretzel dough, the moisture on the dough might dissolve a very fine particle. After baking, this would form a small ring on the surface that would mar the appearance of the finished pretzel.
  • Adhesion.
Choosing the right size and shape of salt particle helps ensure maximum adhesion. Ideally, the salt should have maximum surface to cling to the outside of the snack. This concept may vary slightly depending on the specific application and process. For example, a compacted flake salt adheres better than a granular type on a snack cracker.

ACIDULANTS

Qs 1: What would happen as a food product’s pH is lowered?
Aws: As a product’s pH is lowered, the amount of an organic acid in its undissociated form
increases. The undissociated forms have the greatest ability to keep microbial growth
under control. Some organic acids, such as benzoic and sorbic acid, are extremely
effective microbial inhibitors and are considered “preservatives.”



Qs 2: What is the function of acidulants in food ?
Aws: Acidulants can stabilize the pH of food products by participating in buffering
systems, they also beneficially impact a product’s flavour and texture. As flavouring
agents, acidifiers are known to enhance certain tastes and mask undesirable
aftertastes Whether from natural fermentation or as an ingredient formulated into a
food, acidifiers can hamper microbial growth. Some retorted and pasteurized foods
take advantage of this ability to prevent bacteria proliferation. Acidulants also can be
used to impact the color of products. For example, certain acids can be applied to
fresh cut fruits and vegetables (for example, guacamole dip), to reduce enzymatic
browning.


PROTEIN INGREDIENTS

Qs 1: Why protein are so important in human body and food?
Aws: Proteins serve a dual purpose: functional nutrition and product functionality. Proteins
are the building blocks of the human body. They carry the oxygen in our blood, they
are the antibodies that keep us healthy, and they are the enzymes that start digesting
food the moment it’s in the mouth. In addition, proteins play an important role in
giving structure and stability to food. They are the emulsifiers in sauces, foaming
agents in meringues, gels for confections and water binders in meat








Qs 2: When it comes to selecting proteins for fat-replacement systems, the choice depends
largely on the desired texture and mouth feel of the finished product. Give an example .

Aws: Puddings, viscous products: Sodium caseinates or TMPs are the best choices when a
viscous mouth feel is the goal. Their random-cell hydrophilic and hydrophobic protein
structure gives them the ability to hold water that, in turn, imparts lubricity to the
mixture. Either one also functions well as an emulsifier in products that have low
levels of fat, such as a reduced-fat coffee creamer, as opposed to a completely fat-free
product. WPCs are better suited for thinner products such as salad dressings




PROTEIN COLOURS

Qs 1: Why using synthetic colour in food is better than using natural colours in food?
Aws: Synthetic colours quickly replaced natural colours because they were less expensive,
more stable and had eye-popping quality/intensity.


Qs 2: Naturally derived colours have the reputation of being unstable, particularly in the
presence of light, which accelerates degradative oxidation, or when exposed to the
wrong pH. True or false?
Aws: Naturally derived colours have the reputation of being unstable, particularly in the
presence of light, which accelerates degradative oxidation, or when exposed to the
wrong pH. This isn't entirely true; titanium dioxide, caramel colour and carmine are
extremely stable to changes induced by these factors. In fact, carmine exhibits equal or
better stability than some of the synthetics. Still, the pH influences the hue, the intensity
and the stability of many of the naturals. Acidic conditions turn annatto pink. A pH over 7
causes turmeric to appear red and to fade rapidly. Metal ions, such as iron, copper
magnesium and aluminium, can catalyze oxidative colour loss in carotenoid pigments.



DOUGH / BREAD CONDITIONERS

Qs 1: Dough conditioners consist of what types of ingredients ?
Aws: Primarily, dough conditioners include the following types of ingredients:
  • Oxidizing agents, which strengthen the dough. This can lead to economies with shortened makeup times or by compensating for low protein in the flour.
  • Reducing agents, which serve to encourage the development of gluten, thus shortening the mixing time and decreasing the amount of mixing energy that is needed.
  • Emulsifiers, which strengthen the dough, give improved mixing and handling tolerance, increase loaf volume, improve mechanical slicing characteristics, and can retard staling.
  • Enzymes, which enhance gas production by yeasts and can help control the strength of the dough.


Qs 2: What is the function of dough conditioners?
Aws: Dough conditioners provide optimum characteristics in bakery products such as
improved volume, softness, machinability, crumb structure and freeze/thaw stability, as
well as reduced staling. More importantly, these functional systems improve the
adaptability to changing production methods and ingredient variability.

LEAVENING AGENTS

Qs 1: List out the different types of leaving agents.
Aws:
Ø Baking soda
Ø Baking soda with vinegar
Ø Baking powder
Ø Bakers' ammonia
Ø Potassium bicarbonate
Ø Home-made potash
Ø Home-made potash with vinegar
Ø Active dry yeast
Ø Sourdough starter


Qs 2: Why leaving agents is important in the baked goods?
Aws: Leavening acids will affect the volume, crumb texture, and final structure and colour
appearance of baked goods .


MALTODEXTRINS

Qs1: Define Maltodextrin.
Aws: Maltodextrins is defined as a "nonsweet nutritive saccharide polymer that consists of
D-glucose units linked primarily by (alpha)-1,4 bonds and that has a dextrose
equivalent (DE) of less than 20. It is prepared as a white powder or concentrated
solution by partial hydrolysis of corn starch or potato starch with safe and suitable
acids and enzymes."





Qs2: Any differences with a small shift in DE, larger differences indicate greatly different
polymer lengths. What characteristics will be affect by this small shift in DE?
Aws:
As DE increases, so do the following characteristics:
  • browning (due to the increased level of reducing sugars);
  • hygroscopicity/humectants properties;
  • plasticity;
  • sweetness;
  • solubility;
  • osmolality.
As DE decreases, the following characteristics increase:
  • molecular weight;
  • viscosity;
  • cohesiveness;
  • film-forming properties;
  • prevention of large sugar-crystal formation.



ENZYMES

Qs 1: What factors affect the application of enzymes? Describe.
Aws:
Ø Time is critical for successful application of many enzymes. Put simply, the chemical reaction must have enough time to proceed. An enzyme's catalytic reaction can, of course, be sped up by increasing the enzyme level to increase the amount of available catalyst. However, this can be expensive and, in the case of bacterial amylases for shelf life extension, be impossible due to detrimental effects in the finished product.

Ø Temperature influences enzyme activity in both a positive and negative way. Every 18 degree F increase in dough temperature increases the enzyme activity up to two-fold. On the down side, the same temperature increase also will accelerate the rate of enzyme denaturation by a factor anywhere from 10- to 30-fold. At a high enough temperature, the rate of denaturation catches up with the reaction rate, slows it and eventually stops it. Just as the time and enzyme amount must be optimally balanced, so must the time and temperature. A longer reaction time can actually increase the efficiency of the enzyme conversion at a lower temperature.

Ø Acidity, or pH, affects enzyme activity. Different enzymes, and even enzymes from different sources, have optimum pH ranges under which they are most active. This was previously discussed for different proteases, but also is true for amylases.

Ø Salt level can affect the enzyme's activity because salt can help stabilize certain enzymes. The opposite is true, however, for proteases, which are inhibited by high salt concentrations. This could be the result of salt making gluten less available to the action of the enzymes.


Qs 2: What is the advantages that using enzymes in food?
Aws: An advantage of using enzymes is that they are specific and do not interact with other
components in the food or beverage. Another advantage is that by catalyzing the same
reactions repeatedly as long as the substrate is available (referred to as turnover), they
can be used at very low concentration. Eventually, as the end products of the enzyme
reaction increase in concentration, the reaction is temporarily inhibited by feedback
inhibition. For example, if an enzyme catalyzes the breakdown of polymer into glucose,
high levels of glucose will likely begin to inhibit the enzyme activity.



FUNCTIONAL/ NEUTRACEUTICALS

Qs 1: Define neutraceutical ingredients.
Aws: Nutraceutical food," by the way, is pure marketing-ese; it has no recognition in law or
in a dictionary. These foods include a wide range of products, such as sports drinks
and bars, enriched cereals, breads, fortified snack foods, baby foods, enriched
soymilk and prepared meals. The ingredients that fortify these are termed
"nutraceutical ingredients" or "functional ingredients."


Qs 2: What is the function of phytochemicals?
Aws: Specific phytochemicals may prevent chronic diseases (including cancer), help
manage symptoms of chronic disorders, improve immune response, and even
minimize negative effects of aging.